The American Civil Liberties Union of Georgia said in a statement Wednesday that the groups plan to hold a news conference later today to discuss the suit.
The law enforcement provisions in Georgia's law are similar to a Utah law enacted this year and echo some parts of a law enacted last year in Arizona. All or parts of those laws have been blocked by federal judges.
The Georgia law authorizes law enforcement to check immigration status of a suspect who cannot provide an accepted form of identification, among other provisions.
The groups say it "establishes a `show-me-your-papers' police state, encourages racial profiling, endangers public safety and betrays American values."